Osteochondral transplant

Cartilage defects that extend into the underlying bone can be very painful and cause swelling, locking and instability of the knee. These osteochondral defects can be difficult to treat and will require repair of the damaged bone and cartilage.
A very reliable way to treat these defects is with an osteochondral transfer. This procedure involves taking a plug of healthy bone with its cartilage cap from a healthy section of the knee (normally the trochlea) and transplanting it into the bad patch of bone and cartilage. Usually one plug is sufficient but several can be used (mosaic plasty). 
Cartilage defect

Osteochondral plugs